After a review of the pages linked from the Physics
section (including those references contained in the introductory remarks and
under the figures), you should be able to answer all of the following
questions. Note the key vocabulary
words are in italics. Pay particular attention to the Standard
Model and Particle Fireworks.
is the diameter of a proton in meters and in fermi? Approximately how many protons can fit
on the head of a pin? Define what
you mean by ‘fit’ and show your reasoning.
is the meaning of the term fundamental particle? List a few fundamental and
three characteristics that distinguish fermions from bosons. List three characteristics that
distinguish mesons from baryons. Are there such things as fermionic baryons? How about bosonic baryons?
are some characteristics that distinguish the leptons from other
kinds of fermions?
the 7 major conservation laws used in particle physics. How do these laws explain the types of particle
reactions that may or may not occur?
do you change about a given particle to make it’s anti-particle? What types of particles are their own
are the constituent particles of the neutron and the proton? Explain how the characteristics of the neutron
and proton are determined by their constituent particles.
‘From Quarks to Hadrons’ in Particle Fireworks to build a proton
and an anti-proton. Then
build two mesons and two baryons of any type other than those
you’ve already built. Report the
constituents and the characteristics of each particle that you build.
‘Hadron Decay’ in Particle Fireworks to explain how a neutron can
decay into a proton and an electron (include any other stuff that must
take part in the reaction). Then
do any two of the other decays shown.
Report each completed reaction (with all intermediate steps) in the
form of a vertex diagram.
It may help to refer to Feynmann diagrams.
does the Standard Model explain the interaction that we usually
call the electromagnetic force?
How does the model explain the weak interaction? What does the Standard Model have to
say about gravity?
is meant by quark confinement?
Why are the masses of hadrons larger than the sum of the
masses of their constituent quarks?
must a particle contain in order to ‘feel’ the strong interaction?
types of fundamental particles are among the most weakly interacting? What types of experiments are being
done to detect these particles?
- In 1995,
FermiLab experiments ‘discovered’ the top quark. Was this particle actually observed in
the course of these experiments?
What signatures were used to find the top quark?
many of the Nobel Prizes awarded in Physics since 1975 have been for particle